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Title: Connections of the Inferior Periarcuate Area in the Brain of Macaca Fascicularis: An Experimental and Comparative Neuroanatomical Investigation of Language Circuitry and its Evolution (Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP), Aphasia, Broca's Area)
Authors: Deacon, Terrence
Date: 1984
Source: Experimental and Comparative Neuroanatomical Investigation of Language Circuitry and its Evolution. Ph.D. dissertation. Harvard University. 527 pages.
Abstract: Techniques for tracing axonal connections have been employed to investigate cortical areas in macaque brains which are topographic and cytoarchitectonic homologues of Broca's area and Wernicke's area for language in the human brain. These areas include (1) periarcuate cortex in the frontal lobes, and (2) posterior superior temporal cortex (Tpt) in the brain of Macaca fascicularis. Area Tpt receives a major input from periarcuate and postarcuate premotor areas, but also shares reciprocal cortico-cortical connections with prefrontal, insular, parietal, and posterior cingulate areas. Portions of the periarcuate cortex receive a reciprocal projection from cells in Tpt, while other portions are connected to superior temporal sulcus, dorsal insular, inferior parietal, face-mouth-larynx premotor, supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbital, and anterior cingulate sulcus cortex. Among the subcortical connections both area Tpt and periarcuate cortex are reciprocally connected with the medial pulvinar of the thalamus. Both regions receive contralateral input from their homotopic counterparts as well as some other areas, but periarcuate areas and Tpt share no contralateral connections. The tracer results are remarkably consistent with expectations regarding neural connections of Broca's and Wernicke's areas in the human brain. The topography of the frontal to temporal-parietal area connections is comparable to the distribution of parallel language zones exhibited by electrical brain stimulation. The connectional data do not support a completely dichotomous view of primate vs. human vocalization, and suggest that little if any connectional reorganization characterizes the transition from primate calls to linguistic communication during the evolution of hominids. Quantitative (regression) analysis of the allometric relationships among major brain regions in primate brains indicates that all major types of cortical structures in the human brain are exceptionally enlarged with respect to body size while major nuclear structures are not. Prefrontal cortex (including Broca's area) is most extensively enlarged--even with respect to brain size in humans. It is proposed that internal quantitative reorganization of the periarcuate circuits elucidated in this study, rather than connectional reorganization, is crucial for unique human linguistic abilities.
Subjects: Anatomy & physiology
Format: thesis/dissertation
Online: View Online
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